SHOW NOTES

Table of Contents

S1:E1S1:E2S1:E3S1:E4S1:E5S1:E6
S1:E7S1:E8S1:E9S2:E1S2:E2S2:E3
Season 1 Episode 1 Click Here

Season 1 Episode 1 – A Starting Place: Labels for Students Learning English as Another Language

A Starting Place: Labels for Students Learning English as Another Language
CLICK IMAGE

References

García, O., & Kleifgen, J. (2018). Educating emergent bilinguals: Policies, programs, and practices for English language learners (2nd ed.). Teachers College Press.

Hammond, Z., & Jackson, Y. (2015). Culturally responsive teaching and the brain. Corwin.

Martínez, R. (2018). Beyond theEnglish LearnerLabel: Recognizing the Richness of Bi/Multilingual Students’ Linguistic Repertoires. The Reading Teacher71(5), 515-522. https://doi.org/10.1002/trtr.1679


Season 1 Episode 2 – Policies and Laws Related to the Education of Bi/Emerging Bilinguals

Copyright 2022 by Leigh Ray

References

Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities. (1982). Bilingual Education Amendments of 1981: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-seventh Congress, Second Session, on S. 2002 … April 23 and 26, 1982 (pp. 243-249). U.S. Government Printing Office. [Click here

García, O., & Kleifgen, J. (2018). Educating emergent bilinguals: Policies, programs, and practices for English language learners (2nd ed.). Teachers College Press.

Moore, S. (2021). A History of Bilingual Education in the US: Examining the Politics of Language Policymaking. Multilingual Matters.  

Ray, L. (2021). Language Policy Timeline. Mrsraysclassroom.com. Retrieved 4 February 2022, from https://mrsraysclassroom.com/blog/language-policy-in-the-usa-a-timeline/.

Rutgers, D. (2020). Multilingualism as the norm in education!. Meits.org. Retrieved 4 February 2022, from https://www.meits.org/blog/post/multilingualism-as-the-norm-in-education.

THE INVISIBLE MINORITY. REPORT OF THE NEA-TUCSON SURVEY ON THE TEACHING OF SPANISH TO THE SPANISH-SPEAKING.. Files.eric.ed.gov. (1966). Retrieved 4 February 2022, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED017222.pdf.

Vaid, J. (2002). Bilingualism. Encyclopedia Of The Human Brain, 417-434. https://doi.org/10.1016/b0-12-227210-2/00059-5

Warren, A., & Ward, N. (2022). A Language for Literacy Learning: Language Policy, English Learners and Literacy Instruction. In R. Gabriel (Ed.), How Policy Shapes Literacy Instruction: Understanding the Persistent Problems in Policy and Practice. Palgrave.

Recommended Books

Hammond, Z., & Jackson, Y. (2015). Culturally responsive teaching and the brain. Corwin.

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Season 1 Episode 3 Click Here

Season 1 Episode 3 – Two Instructional Methods for Educating Bi/Multilingual Students: Translanguaging & Total Physical Response

Translanguaging Resources

Check out One Third Stories! Books for bilingualism, for the translanguaging classroom, or for the family.


Total Physical Response (TPR) Resources

Here is a brief example of using TPR during a lesson with a student in China on the VIPKID platform:

Did you know that in the movie Arrival (2016 PG-13), linguistics professor Louise Banks (Amy Adams) first communicates with the aliens using TPR?

References

Hamman, L., Beck, E., & Donaldson, A. (2018). A Pedagogy of Translanguaging. Language Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.languagemagazine.com/2018/09/10/a-pedagogy-of-translanguaging/.

Larsen-Freeman, D., & Anderson, M. (2011). Techniques and principles of language teaching (pp. 137-149). Oxford University Press.

Mena, M. (2019). Ofelia Garcia & Li Wei – Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education (2014) [Video]. https://youtu.be/ybAS3lT6FLc.

Osorio, S. (2020). Building Culturally and Linguistically Sustaining Spaces for Emergent Bilinguals: Using Read-Alouds to Promote Translanguaging. The Reading Teacher74(2), 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1002/trtr.1919

Ray, L. (2021). Translanguaging [Video]. https://youtu.be/oxauy06N2vg.

TEFL & TESOL Courses – ITTT. (2017). Theories, Methods & Techniques of Teaching – Total Physical Response [Video]. https://youtu.be/-d79-veEBXQ.

Recommended Books

García, O., & Wei, L. (2018). Translanguaging. Palgrave Macmillan.

García, O., Ibarra Johnson, S., Seltzer, K., & Valdés, G. (2016). The translanguaging classroom. Caslon.

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Links


Season 1 Episode 4: An Invitation to Conversation

In an article posted February 16, 2022, by Chalkbeat, it says: “Modest pay, a punitive culture of student testing and teacher evaluations, student discipline challenges, and a shortage of planning time are among the reasons” that cause teachers to quit and young people to choose a different career path.

See the related blog post here.

Get the book that’s the focus of this episode!

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Season 1-Episode 5: Program Models & Teaching: Doing What Works for ELs

Please click the posters for larger view:

Learn More about the SIOP Model:

Tennessee ESL Manual and Framework for ELs

  • TN Department of Education English as a Second Language Manual (2018) – access here
  • TN Department of Education Supporting All English Learners across Tennessee: A Framework for English Learners (2018) – access here

WIDA English Language Development Standards Framework, 2020 edition: Kindergarten-Grade 12

  • Download as a PDF here

Specific quotes used in podcast:

  1. For example, in a 2022 peer-reviewed article we learn that “learning two languages simultaneously does not cause confusion or language delays in young children, that teaching both languages facilitates English language learning, and that students possess valuable funds of knowledge originated in their heritage communities.” (Warren & Ward, 2022, p.9)

References

August, D. (2018). Educating English Language Learners. American Federation of Teachers. Retrieved from https://www.aft.org/ae/fall2018/august.

Echevarría, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. (2016). Making content comprehensible for English learners (5th ed.). Pearson.

ESL Manual. Tn.gov. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.tn.gov/content/dam/tn/education/cpm/ESL_Manual.pdf.

Short, D., Becker, H., Cloud, N., Hellman, A., Levine, L., & Cummins, J. (2018). The 6 principles for exemplary teaching of English learners. TESOL International Association.

Sugarman, J. (2018). A Matter of Design: English Learner Program Models in K-12 Education. migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 20 February 2022, from https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/english-learner-program-models-k-12-education.

Teaching academic content and literacy to English learners in elementary and middle chool: Educator’s practice guide. IES: What Works Clearinghouse. (2014). Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide/19.

Warren, A., & Ward, N. (2022). A Language for Literacy Learning: Language Policy, English Learners and Literacy Instruction. In R. Gabriel (Ed.), How Policy Shapes Literacy Instruction: Understanding the Persistent Problems in Policy and Practice. Palgrave.

WIDA. (2020). WIDA English language development standards framework, 2020 edition: Kindergarten-grade 12. Board of Regents of the Universit of Wisconsin System.

Vogt, M., & Echevarría, J. (2022). 99 ideas and activities for teaching English learners with the SIOP® model (2nd ed.). Pearson.

Zwiers, J., O’Hara, S., & Pritchard, R. (2014). Common core standards in diverse classrooms: Essential practices for developing academic language & disciplinary literacy. Stenhouse Publ.

Recommend Books

  • Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model, 5th Ed., Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2016
  • 99 Ideas and Activities for Teaching ELs with SIOP Model (2e), Vogt & Echevarria


S1:E6

Season 1 Episode 6: Introduction to WIDA & TESOL’s 6 Principles (this podcast is temporarily delayed)

WIDA English Language Development Standards Framework, 2020 edition: Kindergarten-Grade 12

  • Download as a PDF here


Listening and reading are receptive or interpretive skills.

Speaking and writing are productive or expressive skills.

Links:

  • WIDA Can-Do Descriptors: All Grades
  • The WIDA Consortium The WIDA Consortium is made up of 41 U.S. states, territories and federal agencies dedicated to the research, design and implementation of a high-quality, culturally and linguistically appropriate system to support English language learners in K-12 contexts.

Season 1 Episode 7

Season 1 Episode 7: Academic Language & Conversations (this podcast is temporarily delayed)


Season 1 Episode 8: Orthographies and the Emerging Bilingual

Table 4.2: Early Reading Instruction for ELLs Literate in Different Kinds of Orthographies
Source: Lems, K., Miller, L., & Soro, T. (2017). Building literacy with English language learners (p. 104). Guilford Press.

L1 orthographic systemExample LanguagesSpend more time on:Spend less time on:
Transparent Roman alphabet with some similarities to EnglishSpanish, Polish, Turkish, WelshEnglish phonics (focusing on differences from L1), reading for meaning, learning sight wordsPhonological awareness, phonics for sounds/letters shared with L1
Opaque Roman alphabet with limited similarities to EnglishFrench, PortuguesePhonological awareness, English phonics, learning sight wordsReading for meaning
Transparent alphabet or syllabary other than Roman alphabetUkrainian, Arabic, Korean, GujaratiReading for meaning (for transparent), English phonics, learning sight workdsPhonological awareness
Opaque alphabet or syllabary other than Roman alphabetMongolianPhonological awareness, English phonics, learning sight wordsReading for meaning
Opaque orthographies that do not use an alphabetChinese, Japenese, KanjiLearning the concept of an alphabet (representing sounds through symbols), phonological awareness, English phonics, learning sight wordsReading for meaning
NonliterateAnyAll of these through a balanced literacy programnone

Links:

Check out this fun site!

How Sequoyah, who did not read or write, created a written language for the Cherokee Nation from scratch. PBS: American Masters

References:

Garcia, O., & Kleyn. T. (2016). Translanguaging with multilingual students. Routledge.

Lems, K., Miller, L., & Soro, T. (2017). Building literacy with English language learners (2nd ed., pp. 81-111). Guilford Press.

Rowe, L. W. (2022). “I don’t know how to spell it”: Overcoming Translingual Spelling Hesitancy. The Reading Teacher, 00, 1– 4. https://doi.org/10.1002/trtr.2099

Season 1 Episode 9: Poetry and the Emerging Bilingual

Learn More

There’s a reason poets often say, ‘Poetry saved my life,’ for often the blank page is the only one listening to the soul’s suffering, the only one registering the story completely, the only one receiving all softly and without condemnation.

Clarissa Pinkola Estes, a first-generation American writer and Jungian psychoanalyst and author of Women Who Run with the Wolves. Estés was born in Gary, Indiana, to Emilio Maria Reyés and Cepción Ixtiz, who were from Mexico.

A Class in Becoming Multilingual? – a blog post by Olivia Mulcahy. She asks: “What if our pursuits in language learning at school were not all compartmentalized by discrete languages, but we instead created courses where the objective was simply to become more multilingual?

Remember, a poem by Joy Harjo. See an interview with her here.

Learn more about bilingual poet Rhina P. Espaillat here on the Poetry Foundation’s page. This episode began with her poem, Bilingual/Bilingue.

Check out Melisa Cahnmann-Taylor’s bio at https://art.uga.edu/directory/melisa-cahnmann-taylor. She wrote the article I referenced in this podcast (cited below).

This is amazing! Check it out: Living Nations, Living Words: A Map of First Peoples Poetry, with commentary by Joy Harjo, 23rd Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry.

It’s Life or Death: The Mental Health Crisis Among U.S. Teens,” NY Times, April 23, 2022.

Video: Red Hot Salsa: Bilingual Poems on Being Young and Latino in the United States

Suggested Books

Carlson, L. (2013). Cool salsa. Henry Holt and Co.

Carlson, L. (2005). Red hot salsa. Henry Holt.

References:

(2005) Red Hot Salsa: Bilingual Poems on Being Young and Latino in the United States. [Video] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/webcast-3734/.

Bilingual/Bilingüe by Rhina P. Espaillat | Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 19 April 2022, from https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/46542/bilingual-bilingue.

Cahnmann, M., & Carpenter, M. (2006). Reading, Living, and Writing Bilingual Poetry as ScholARTistry in the Language Arts Classroom. Language Arts; Urbana83(4), 342-352.

Carlson, L. (2013). Cool salsa. Henry Holt and Co.

Carlson, L. (2005). Red hot salsa. Henry Holt.

Lu, C. (2020). Bilingualism and Biliteracy for All. American Federation of Teachers. Retrieved from https://www.aft.org/ae/summer2020/lu.